Volume 11, Issue 1 - March 2011


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Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada
Volume 11, Número 1, Março 2011, Páginas 85-96

DOI: 10.5894/rgci200
* Submissão – 8 Março 2010; Avaliação – 1 Setembro 2010; Recepção da versão revista – 7 Outubro 2010; Disponibilização on-line – 11 Fevereiro 2011

Invertebrados macrobentônicos detectados na costa brasileira transportados por resíduos flutuantes sólidos abiogênicos *

Macrobenthic invertebrates found in Brazilian coast transported on abiogenic solid floating debris

Cristiane Maria Rocha Farrapeira @, 1

@ - Autor correspondente:
1 - Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco- UFRPE, Deptº de Biologia, R. Dom Manoel de Medeiros, s/nº, Dois Irmãos, Recife-PE, 52-171-900

A dispersão de animais bentônicos através de estruturas e organismos flutuantes tem sido reportada em todos os oceanos. Buscando conhecer a identidade dos invertebrados associados a resíduos flutuantes na costa brasileira, foi efetuado um levantamento bibliográfico compilando as informações sobre o hábito, distribuição e substratos abiogênicos que servem de suporte para a dispersão das espécies. Foram registradas 122 espécies transportadas em resíduos cuja natureza/origem não foi informada (a maioria), plásticos, materiais de nylon, metal e vidros. Bryozoa, Crustacea, Cnidaria e Mollusca foram os grupos mais freqüentes, sendo a maioria das espécies cosmopolita, exótica (50,8%) e de origem criptogênica (44,3%). As comunidades viajantes são constituídas principalmente por animais sésseis, ainda que também tenham sido registradas sedentárias e vágeis, habitantes da região entre-marés ou que vivem preferencialmente no infralitoral raso.

Palavras-chave: Rafting, transporte passivo, resíduos marinhos, invertebrados bentônicos.

The dispersion of benthic animals through natural substrata (pumice, seaweed floats elements, leaves, seeds and stems of higher plants and parts of organisms- usually parts of the skeleton and shells) and anthropogenic solid waste (glass bottles, paperboard and wood products, fishing tools and oil derivatives, like tar and plastic materials) has been reported in all oceans. In order to know the identity of this community of travelers’ invertebrates on abiogenic debris occurring in Brazilian littoral, it was made a literature review of the species listed as having an association with these vectors in the country and elsewhere. Informations on habit, geographical distribution and substrata were done It was compiled 122 species transported mainly by plastic substrates, as well materials composed by nylon, metal and glass; most of the mentioned substrata was unidentified debris. The four groups numerically more frequent were: Bryozoa, Crustacea, Cnidaria, and Mollusca. The community comprised an unrepresentative native fauna (4.9%) and mostly cosmopolitan species of cryptogenic origin (44.3%) and nonindigenous (50.8%), in this case, originated principally from the Atlantic Ocean (western and eastern). The traveler community consists primarily of sessile animals, although there were observations of sedentary and vagile species, all of them inhabitants of the intertidal or preferably living in the shallow sublittoral. Although a large number of species also uses other vectors of dispersal, it can infer that the passive transport of invertebrates on anthropogenic debris carried by the currents creates additional opportunities for dispersal. Some species were found in debris washed away by coastal currents along the Brazilian coast or in major ocean currents (the South Equatorial Current and South of Brazil) could be attributed to this vector as responsible for their introduction on the coast. These are the cases of the polychaetes Amphinome rostrata, Hermodice carunculata and Hipponoa gaudichaudi agulhana and the urchin Arbacia lixula, described and observed in debris on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and may have used the South Equatorial Current to its dispersion. It was also that occurred with some cryptogenic species such as the pseudo-planktonic goose barnacles, as well the nonindigenous compound tunicate Symplegma rubra, usually found on floating debris. Other species feasible to use this vector preferably in the ocean voyages are those commonly cited in the floating masses of Sargassum, as several hydroids and bryozoans found in the Gulf Stream and, more particularly, the bryozoans Aetea sica and Conopeum reticulum, mentioned in floating Sargassum in the Brazil Current; they may have used this or any other anthropogenic vector to colonize the Brazilian coast. At last other group candidate to travel better in this pathway than other are the bryozoans Aeverrillia armata, Bugula dentata, B. flabellata, B. neritina and Chlidonia pyriformis, whose weakness in the articulation of zooids, generates the assumption that the colonies would not stand the speed of vessels in the trans-oceanic travel.

Keywords: Rafting, passive transportation, marine debris, benthic invertebrates.


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