Volume 12, Issue 4 - December 2012


Download (1.043KB, PDF)



  • Abstract / Resumo
  • References / Bibliografia
  • Citations / Citações

Revista de Gestão Costeira Integrada
Volume 12, Número 4, Dezembro 2012, Páginas 545-557

DOI: 10.5894/rgci337
* Submission: June 03 2012; Evaluation: July 09, 2012; Reception of revised manuscript: December 06, 2012; Accepted: December 07, 2012; Available on-line: December 14, 2012

** Portuguese Abstract and captions by Ulisses M Azeiteiro on behalf of the Journal Editorial Board

Examining local conservation and development: Live reef food fishing in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia *

Conservação e desenvolvimento local: recursos pesqueiros no Arquipélago de Spermonde na
Indonésia **

Irendra Radjawali @, 1

@ - Corresponding author
1 - Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology - Bremen / Fahrenheitstrasse 6, Bremen 28359, Germany. e-mail:

Live reef food fish (LRFF) fishing is one of the most important livelihoods for the people of the coastal and small island communities within the Spermonde Archipelago in South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia. However, LRFF fishing and trade is considered a threat to the reef ecosystem due to over-fishing and the use of cyanide as a method of increasing the LRFF catch. This paper examines the effectiveness of a development and conservation effort known as COREMAP (Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Project), which was funded by loans and grants from various international financial institutions and overseas development agencies that aim to protect, rehabilitate, and sustain the utilization of coral reefs and their associated ecosystems in Indonesia. In this paper, COREMAP is examined in order to answer the main research question, “Has the lack of understanding of the socio-economics of the LRFF fishing and trade been a factor in the shortcomings of COREMAP to protect, rehabilitate, and sustain the utilization of coral reefs and their associated ecosystem in Indonesia?” This paper demonstrates that the achievement of COREMAP’s goals has been hindered by COREMAP’s inability to incorporate commoditization processes characterized by profit accumulation in the hands of a few actors and by the persistence of debts structure through the existing LRFF fishing and trade networks into COREMAP’s strategies and policies. Moreover, this paper also demonstrates that COREMAP’s organizational structures have not been able to challenge the practices of corruption which maintain cyanide fishing practices, characterized by the existing LRFF prosecution insurance network. This paper concludes that the inability of COREMAP to clearly address the issues of profit accumulation and debts as well as to challenge the practice of corruption have led to shortcomings in the achievement of COREMAP’s conservation and development goals. The case of managing reef fishery in Indonesia provides valuable lessons for countries with abundant reef ecosystem and for international development agencies which support the conservation and development of coastal areas.

Keywords: Live reef food fish (LRFF); COREMAP; social networks; conservation; Spermonde Archipelago; cyanide fishing.

A pesca nos recifes é um dos mais importantes meios de subsistência para as comunidades costeiras e das ilhas no arquipélago de Spermonde na província Sulawesi no sul da Indonésia. Contudo, a pesca e o comércio dos recursos biomarinhos pesqueiros é considerada uma ameaça aos ecossistemas recifais devido à sobrepesca e ao uso de cianeto para aumentar as capturas. Neste trabalho avalia-se o sucesso de um plano de desenvolvimento e conservação, o COREMAP (Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Project), financiado por empréstimos e apoios de várias instituições financeiras internacionais e agências de desenvolvimento, com o objectivo de proteger, reabilitar e implementar o uso sustentável dos recifes de coral e os ecossistemas associados. O COREMAP é avaliado no sentido de responder à questão investigativa “A ausência de conhecimento e compreensão dos factores socioeconómicos relativos à pesca e comércio dos recursos biomarinhos pesqueiros constituíram factores negativos na aplicação dos objectivos do COREMAP?” Este estudo demonstra que os resultados e execução do COREMAP foram prejudicados pelas deficiências na incorporação dos processos de mercantilização e a acumulação dos lucros junto de poucos dos envolvidos, persistindo ainda uma dinâmica de débitos nas redes comerciais associadas às estratégias e politicas do COREMAP. Além disso, o COREMAP não teve êxito em impedir as práticas associadas ao uso de cianeto para aumentar as capturas. Concluímos que o COREMAP não atingiu os objectivos de criação de riqueza e equilíbrio económico, assim como não conseguiu impedir as práticas lesivas do ambiente associadas a dinâmicas sociais inadequadas e impeditivas de desenvolvimento socio ambiental. O caso da pesca recifal na Indonésia é referencial para países com grandes ecossistemas recifais e para as agências internacionais de desenvolvimento que apoiam e suportam a conservação e o desenvolvimento das áreas costeiras.

Palavras-chave: Recifes; Pesca; Redes socioeconómicas; COREMAP; Arquipélago de Spermonde; cianeto.


Adhuri, D.S. (1998) – Who can challenge them? Lessons learned from attempting to curb cyanide fishing in Maluku, Indonesia. SPC Live Reef Fish Bulletin (ISSN: 1026-2040), 4:12-17, Bonnet Hill, Tasmania, Australia. Available at

Agrawal, A.; Gibson, C.C.(1999) – Enchantment and Disenchantment: The role of community in natural resource conservation. World Development, 27(4):629-649. DOI: 10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00161-2

Agrawal, A.; Gibson, C.C. (eds.) (2001) - Communities and the environment: Ethnicity, gender, and the state in community-based conservation. 205p., Rutgers University Press, Piscataway, NJ, U.S.A. ISBN: 0813529131.

Baitoningsih, W. (2009) - Community participation in designing Marine Protected Area in Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Master Thesis, 90p., University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Not published.

Bentley, N. (1999) - Fishing for solution: Can the live trade in wild groupers and wrasses from Southeast Asia be managed? 143p., TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Selangor, Malaysia. ISBN 978-9839924633.

Berkes, F. (2002) - Cross-scale institutional linkages for commons management: perspectives from the bottom up. In: E. Ostrom, T. Dietz, N. Dolšak, P.C. Stern, S. Stonich & E.U. Weber (eds.), The drama of the commons, pp.293-322, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. ISBN: 0309082501.

Brugnach, M.; Dewulf, A.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Taillieu,T. (2008) - Toward a relational concept of uncertainty: About knowing too little, knowing too differently, and accepting not to know. Ecology and Society, 13(2):art30. Available at

Cesar, H.S.J.; Warren, K.A.; Sadovy, Y.; Lau, P.; Meijer, S.; Ierland, E.V. (2000) - Marine market transformation of the live reef fish food trade in Southeast Asia.. In: H. S. J. Cesar (ed.), Collected essays on the economics of coral reefs, pp.137-157, CORDIO, Kalmar, Sweden.
ISBN: 9197395900.

Cinner, J.E.; Daw, T.M.; McClanahan, T.R. (2009a) - Socioeconomic factors that affect artisanal fishers’ readiness to exit a declining fisheries. Conservation Biology, 23(1):124-130.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01041.x

Cinner, J.E.; McClanahan, T.R.; Daw, T.M.; Graham, N.A.J.; Maina, J.; Wilson, S.K.; Hughes, T.P. (2009b) - Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries. Current Biology, 19(3):206-212. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.11.055.

Coleman, F.C.; Koenig, C.C.; Collins, A. (1996) - Reproductive styles of shallow-water groupers (Pisces: Serranidae) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico and the consequences of fishing spawning aggregations. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 47(2):129-141.
DOI: 10.1007/BF00005035

Dias, J.A.; de Mahiques, M.M.; Cearreta, A. (2012) – Coastal Management: the result of a doubtful relationship between Man and Nature. Journal of Integrated Coastal Zone Management, 12(1):3-6. DOI: 10.5894/rgci331. Available at

Fabinyi, M.; Dalabajan, D. (2011) - Policy and practice in the live reef fish for food trade: A case study from Palawan, Philippines. Marine Policy, 35(3):371-378. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2010.11.001

Fougères, D. (2009) - Old markets, new commodities: Aquarian capitalism in Indonesia. In: J. Nevins & N.L. Peluso (eds.), Taking Southeast Asia to market: Commodities, nature and people in the neoliberal age, pp.161-175, SIRD, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. ISBN: 978-9833782673.

Glaser, M.; Baitoningsih, W.; Ferse, S.C.A.; Neil, M.; Deswandi, R. (2012) – Whose sustainability? Top-down participation in MPA management in Indonesia. Proceeding of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium: Cairns, Australia. Available at
Glaser, M.; Ferse, S.; Krause, G.; Deswandi, R.; Radjawali, I. (2010) - People, Reefs and Fish in Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi. SPICE Cluster 6 Report, Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Research report, 22p., Bremen, Germany. Not Published.

Glaser, M.; Radjawali, I.; Ferse, S. C. A.; Glaeser, B. (2010a) - ’Nested’ participation in hierarchical societies? Lessons for social-ecological research and management. International Journal of Society Systems Science, 2(4):390-414. DOI: 10.1504/IJSSS.2010.035571.

Glaser, M.; Baitoningsih, W.; Ferse, S.C.A.; Neil, M.; Deswandi, R. (2010b) - Whose sustainability? Top-down participation and emergent rules in marine protected area management in Indonesia. Marine Policy, 34(6):1215-1225. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2010.04.006.

IUCN – The World Conservation Union. (2002) - The coral reef rehabilitation and management program: Phase I evaluation report. 58p., IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland. Available at

Johannes, R.E.; Riepen, M. (1995) - Environmental, economic, and social implications of the live reef fish trade in Asia and the Western Pacific. Report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, 81p., R.E. Johannes Pty Ltd., Bonnet Hill, Tasmania, Australia / Fisheries Development Associates, Wellington, New Zealand.

Karimzadeh GH.; Gabrielyan, B.; Fazli, H. (2010) – Study of population dynamics and biological parameters of Anchovy Kilka (Clupeonella engrauliformis) in Southeast part of Caspian Sea (Mazandaran Province). Biological Journal of Armenia (ISSN: 0366-5119), 62(2):67-74, Erevan, Armenia. Available at

Kellert, S.R.; Mehta, J.N.; Ebbin, S.A.; Lichtenfeld, L.L. (2000) – Community natural resources management: Promise, rhetoric and reality. Society and Natural Resources, 13(8):705-715.
DOI: 10.1080/089419200750035575.

Lau, P.P.F.; Parry-Jones, R. (1999) - The Hong Kong trade in live reef fish for food. TRAFFIC East Asia and World Wide Fund For Nature Hong Kong, 65p., Hong Kong. Executive summary available at

Leach, M.; Mearns, R.; Scoones, I. (1999) – Environmental entitlements: Dynamics and institutions in community-based natural resource management. World Development, 27(2):225-247.
DOI: 10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00141-7.

Lowe, C. (2000) - Global markets, local injustice in Southeast Asian Seas: The live fish trade and local fishers in the Togean Islands of Sulawesi. In: C. Zerner (ed.), People, plant and justice: The politics of nature conservation, pp.234-258, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, U.S.A. ISBN: 0231108109.

Meereboer, M.T. (1998) - Fishing for credit: Patronage and debt relations in the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. In: K. Robinson & M. Paeni (eds.), Living through histories: Culture, history and social life in South-Sulawesi, pp.249-276, Australian National University/RSPAS, Canberra, Australia. ISBN: 9780731532186.

Moosa, M.K. (2005) – Implementing policy and strategy for coral reef rehabilitation and management: lessons learnt from an Indonesian effort. In: M. Ahmed, C.K. Chong, & H. Cesar (eds.), Economic valuation and policy priorities for sustainable management of coral reefs, pp.159-169, World Fish Center: Penang, Malaysia. Available at

Mous, P.J.; Pet-Soede, L.; Erdmann, M.; Cesar, H.S.J.; Sadovy, Y.; Pet, J.S. (2000) - Cyanide fishing on Indonesian coral reefs for the live food fish market – What is the problem? In: H.S.J. Cesar (ed.), Collected essays on the economic of coral reefs, pp.69-76, CORDIO, Kalmar, Sweden. ISBN: 9197395900.

Morris, A.V.; Roberts, C.M.; Hawkins, J.P. (2000) - The threatened status of groupers (Epinephelinae). Biodiversity and Conservation, 9(7):919-942. DOI: 10.1023/A:1008996002822

Nevins, J.; Peluso, N.L. (eds.) (2009) - Taking Southeast Asia to market: Commodities, Nature, and People in the neoliberal age. 280p., SIRD, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. ISBN: 978-9833782673.

Pelras, C. (2000) - Patron-client ties among the Bugis and Makassarese of South Sulawesi. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 156(3):393-432. Available at
index.php/ btlv/article/viewFile/1793/2554

Pomeroy, R. (1995) – Community-based and co-management institutions for sustainable coastal fisheries management in Southeast Asia. Ocean & Coastal Management, 27(3):143-162.
DOI: 10.1016/0964-5691(95)00042-9.

Radjawali, I. (2010) - Reconsidering development – coping with uncertainties: Live reef food fish (LRFF) trade in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia. Reconsidering Development, 1:1, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A. Available at

Radjawali, I. (2011) - Social networks and the live reef food fish (LRFF) trade: Examining sustainability. The Journal of Indonesian Social Sciences and Humanities (ISSN: 1979-8431), 4:65-100, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jakarta, Indonesia. Available at

Sadovy, Y.J.; Donaldson, T.J.; Graham, T.R.; McGilvray, F.; Muldoon, G.J.; Phillips, M.J.; Rimmer, M.A.; Smith, A.; Yeeting, B. (2003) - While stock last: The live reef food fish trade. 146p., Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines. ISBN: 971-5614981. Available at

Scales, H.; Balmford, A.; Manica, A. (2007) - Monitoring the live reef food fish trade: Lessons learned from local and global perspectives. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin (ISSN: 1025-7497), 17:36-42, Bonnet Hill, Tasmania, Australia. Available at

Tomascik, T., Mah, A.J.; Nontji, A.; Moosa, M.K. (1997) - The ecology of the Indonesian seas. Part One. 642 p., The Ecology of Indonesia Series Volume VII, Periplus, Singapore. ISBN: 962-5930787.

World Bank (2003) - Indonesia - Second Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program Project - Project information document appraisal stage No. AB520. Coral reef rehabilitation and management program phase II. 12p., Washington, DC, U.S.A. Available at

World Bank (2012a) – Indonesia - Second Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Project - Implementation completion and results report, No. ICR2245. 86p., Washington, DC, U.S.A. Available at

World Bank (2012b) – IBRD Flexible loan: Major terms and conditions. 2p., Washington, DC, U.S.A. Available at


em construção